Journal articles

Balland, P.A., Jara-Figueroa, C., Petralia, S., Steijn, M., Rigby, D., and Hidalgo, C. (2020) Complex Economic Activities Concentrate in Large Cities, Nature Human Behavior, 4: 248–254  [Abstract]  [PDF]

Ascani, A., Bettarelli, L., Resmini, L., and Balland, P. A. (2020) Global networks, local specialisation and regional patterns of innovation, Research Policy, 49 (8) [Abstract]  [PDF]

Ascani, A., Balland, P.A., and Morrison, A. (2020) Heterogeneous foreign direct investment and local innovation in Italian Provinces, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 53: 388-401 [Abstract]  [PDF] 

Balland, P.A., Boschma, R., Crespo, J. and Rigby, D. (2019) Smart Specialization policy in the EU: Relatedness, Knowledge Complexity and Regional Diversification, Regional Studies, 53 (9): 1252-1268 [Abstract]  [PDF]

Balland, P.A., Boschma, R., and Ravet, J. (2019) Network dynamics in collaborative research in the EU, 2003–2017, European Planning Studies, 27 (9): 1811-1837. [Abstract]  [PDF] 

Farinha, T., Balland, P.A., Morrison, A., and Boschma, R. (2019) What drives the geography of jobs in the US? Unpacking relatedness, Industry and Innovation, 26 (9): 988-1022 [Abstract]  [PDF] 

Giuliani, E., Balland, P.A., and Matta, A. (2019) Straining but not thriving: Understanding network dynamics in underperforming industrial clusters, Journal of Economic Geography, 19 (1): 147–172 [Abstract] [PDF]

Hidalgo, C., Balland, P.A., Boschma, R., Delgado, M., Feldman, M., Frenken, K., Glaeser, E., He, C., Kogler, D., Morrison, A.,  Neffke, F., Rigby, D., Stern, S., Zheng, S., and Zhu, S. (2018)  The Principle of Relatedness, Unifying Themes in Complex Systems (IX): 451-457  [Abstract]  [PDF]​

Vicente, J., Balland, P.A., and Crespo, J. (2018) Les fondements micro du changement structurel régional: Que nous enseignent 25 ans de proximités?, Revue d'Économie Régionale & Urbaine, 5 (6): 1013-1041. [Abstract] [PDF]

Petralia, S., Balland, P.A., and Morrison, A. (2017) Climbing the Ladder of Technological Development, Research Policy, 46 (5): 956–969 [Abstract] [PDF]


Balland, P.A. and Rigby, D. (2017) The Geography of Complex Knowledge, Economic Geography, 93 (1): 1-23 [Abstract] [PDF]


Heimeriks, G., and Balland, P.A. (2016) How Smart is Specialisation? An Analysis of Specialisation Patterns in Knowledge Production, Science and Public Policy, 43 (4): 562-574 [Abstract] [PDF]


Balland, P.A., Belso-Martinez, J.A., and Morrison, A. (2016) The Dynamics of Technical and Business Knowledge Networks in Industrial Clusters: Embeddedness, status or proximity?, Economic Geography, 92 (1): 35-60 [Abstract] [PDF]


Petralia, S., Balland, P.A., and Rigby, D. (2016) Unveiling the geography of historical patents in the United States from 1836 to 1975, Scientific Data, 3 (160074): 1-14 [Abstract] [PDF]


Balland, P.A., Rigby, D., and Boschma, R. (2015) The Technological Resilience of U.S. Cities, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8 (2): 167-184 [Abstract ] [PDF]


Balland, P.A., Boschma, R. and Frenken, K. (2015) Proximity and Innovation: From Statics to Dynamics, Regional Studies, 49 (6): 907-920 [Abstract] [PDF]


Boschma, R., Balland, P.A. and Kogler, D. (2015) Relatedness and Technological Change in Cities: The rise and fall of technological knowledge in U.S. metropolitan areas from 1981 to 2010, Industrial and Corporate Change, 24 (1): 223-250 [Abstract] [PDF]


Broekel, T., Balland, P.A., Burger, M. and van Oort, F. (2014) Modeling Knowledge Networks in Economic Geography: A Discussion of Four Empirical Strategies, The Annals of Regional Science, 53 (2): 423-452 [Abstract ] [PDF]


Boschma, R., Heimeriks, G. and Balland, P.A. (2014) Scientific Knowledge Dynamics and Relatedness in Bio-Tech Cities, Research Policy, 43 (1): 107-114 [Abstract] [PDF]


Balland, P.A., de Vaan, M. and Boschma, R. (2013) The Dynamics of Interfirm Networks along the Industry Life Cycle: The Case of the Global Video Games Industry 1987-2007, Journal of Economic Geography, 13 (5): 741-765 [Abstract ] [PDF]


Balland, P.A., Suire, R. and Vicente, J. (2013) Structural and Geographical Patterns of Knowledge Networks in Emerging Technological Standards: Evidence from the European GNSS Industry, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 22 (1): 47-72 [Abstract] [PDF]


Balland, P.A. (2012) Proximity and the Evolution of Collaboration Networks: Evidence from Research and Development Projects within the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Industry, Regional Studies, 46 (6): 741-756 [Abstract] [PDF]


Vicente, J., Balland, P.A. and Brossard, O. (2011) Getting into Networks and Clusters: Evidence from the Midi-Pyrenean Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Collaboration Network, Regional Studies, 45 (8): 1059-1078 [Abstract] [PDF]


Journal articles (Under review)

Balland, P.A., and Boschma, R. (2019) Mapping the potential of EU regions to contribute to Industry 4.0, World Bank (2019) Europe 4.0: The Promise of Digital Transformation, Industry and Innovation (minor revision)  [Working Paper] 

Dong, Z., Li, Y., Balland, P.A., and Zheng, S. (2019) Industrial Land Policy and Economic Complexity of Chinese Cities,  Land Use Policy (minor revision) [Working Paper] 

Uhlbach, W.H., Balland, P.A., and Scherngell, T. (2019) R&D Policy and Technological Trajectories of Regions: Evidence from the EU Framework Programmes, Industrial and Corporate Change (major revision) [Working Paper] 


Steijn, M., Balland, P.A., Boschma, R., Rigby, David (2019) Technological Diversification of U.S. Cities during the Great Historical Crises, Industrial and Corporate Change (revise and re-submit)

Books & book chapters

Balland, P. A., Boschma, R., & Frenken, K. (2020) Proximity, Innovation and Networks: A Concise Review and Some Next Steps, Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, 20 (19): 1-75 [Abstract] [PDF]

Crespo, P.A.., R. Boschma and P.A. Balland (2017) Resilience, networks and competitiveness: a conceptual framework, in: R. Huggins and P. Thompson (eds.) Handbook of Regions and Competitiveness. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar [Book


Balland, P.A. (2016) Relatedness and the Geography of Innovation, in: R. Shearmur, C. Carrincazeaux and D. Doloreux (eds) Handbook on the Geographies of Innovation. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar [Book[PDF]


Boschma, R., P.A. Balland and D. Kogler (2015) The geography of interfirm knowledge spillovers in bio-tech, in: F. Crespi and F. Quatraro (eds) The Economics of Knowledge, Innovation and Systemic Technology Policy. London/New York: Routledge [Book]


Vicente, J., Balland, P.A. and Suire, R. (2013) The structure and geography of collaboration networks in the European GNSS industry: a 1-mode and 2-mode network analysis, in T. Scherngell (ed.) The geography of networks and R&D collaborations. New York, NY: Advances in Spatial Science Springer Series [Book]


Boschma, R., Balland, P.A. and de Vaan, M. (2014) The Formation of Economic Networks: A Proximity Approach, in A. Torre and F. Wallet (eds.) Regional Development and Proximity Relations. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar [Book]


Balland, P.A., Boschma, R. and Frenken, K. (2013) Proximity and Innovation Networks: An Evolutionary Approach, in: P. Cooke (ed.) Re-framing Regional Development: Evolution, Innovation and Transition. New York, NY: Routledge [Book]


Balland, P.A. (2010) Proximity and the Structure of Knowledge Networks: Evidence from the GNSS industry. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toulouse. [Book[PDF]


Book reviews

Balland, P.A. (2017) A review of Why Information Grows? The Evolution of Order, from Atoms to Economies by César Hidalgo, Journal of Economic and Social Geography (TESG), 108 (2): 258–260 [Abstract] [PDF]


Other publications

Balland, P.A. and Boschma, R. (2020) Complementary Inter-Regional Linkages and Smart Specialization: an Empirical Study on European Regions, Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, 20 (23): 1-75 [Abstract] [PDF]

Balland, P.A., and Ravet, J. (2018) Dynamic Network Analysis of the EU R&I Framework Programme. European Commission report, forthcoming  [Monitoring Flash]  [PDF] 

Crespo, J., Balland, P.A., Boschma, R., and Rigby, D. (2017) Regional diversification opportunities and smart specialization strategies. Policy brief by the Research, Innovation, and Science Policy Experts (RISE), Directorate-General for Research and Innovation of the European Commission, Brussels. [Abstract[PDF] 


Balland, P.A. (2017) Economic Geography in R: Introduction to the EconGeo Package, Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, 17 (09): 1-75 [Abstract] [PDF]


Balland, P.A. (2017) EconGeo: Computing Key Indicators of the Spatial Distribution of Economic Activities, R package version 1.3: [Abstract] [PDF]


Petralia, S., Balland, P.A., and Rigby, D. (2016) HistPat Dataset, Harvard Dataverse, doi: 10.7910/DVN/BPC15W [Data] [Tutorial]